Uburundi

Republika y'u Burundi
République du Burundi
Irepuburika y’Uburundi
Republic of Burundi
Flag of Burundi.svg Blason du Burundi.svg
LocationBurundi.svg

Repuburika y’Uburundi (Uburundi) ni igihugu kiri muri Afirika y’ubuseruko. Gikikujwe n'Urwanda mu buraruko; Tanzaniya mu buseruko hamwe na Repuburika iharanira intwaro rusangi ya Kongo RDC mu burengero. Ikiyaga Tanganyika kiri mu burengero bw’Uburundi kiri hafi y’umurwa mukuru w'ubutunzi Bujumbura kikaba ari ica kabiri kw’isi gifise munsi kure cane.

  • Izina ry’Igihugu: Repuburika y’Uburundi
  • Umurwa mukuru w'intwaro (Poritike): Gitega
  • Umurwa mukuru w'ubutunzi: Bujumbura
  • Uburinganire: Ibirometero kwadarato 27.834 (incuro indwi izinga rya Mayoroka)
  • Abanyagihugu: 12.100.000 (2019) muri iyi myaka mirongo itatu iheze igitigiri c’abantu caraduze incuro kabiri
  • Ukurundana: Abantu 435 ku kirometero kwadarato: Uburundi buri mu bihugu bifise abantu benshi muri Afirika
  • Ukwikukira: Ku wa mbere Mukakaro 1962 (01/07/1962)
  • Icitiro: Umurundi, Umurundikazi

AkahiseEdit

Abashakashatsi bavuga ko Uburundi bwamyeho bwa gihugu cikwiye kuva mu kinjana ca 16. Mu mwaka w'1903 ni ho catakaza intahe y’ukwikukira igihe hashikiye abadagi; umwami w’ico gihe Mwezi Gisabo akaba yasinyanye nabo Amasezerano y’i Kiganda. Haheze ingwano y’isi yose ya mbere caciye gicurwa bufuni na buhoro n'igihugu c’Ububirigi. Uburundi bwarafatanijwe n’igihugu c'Urwanda: Rwanda-Urundi. Ku wa 1 Mukakaro 1962 niho casubira kuronka intahe yaco y´ukwikukira irondewe n´umuganwa Rwagasore Rudoviko umuhungu w'umwami Mwambutsa Bangiricenge akaba n'umukuru w’umugambwe w'abadasigana UPRONA. Uburundi cari igihugu cifashe kandi cagutse. Mu nyuma ku ntwaro y'Ababirigi gitakaza Ubugufi, imwe mu ntara yari nini, ica yegukira Tanzaniya.

Akahise k’Uburundi karanzwe n’igihe c’ubwami bwa kera bwabayeho imbere y’ubukoroni, n’imbibe zitahindutse. Uburundi bwashinze imizi kuva mu kinjana ca 16 canke ca 17 mu karere karimwo abantu kuva mu kimpumbi ca mbere imbere y’umuzo wa Yezu Kirisu. Bwari Ubwami bushingiye ku migenzo n’amategeko kama y’Imana, umwe wese akamenya ico ajejwe ariko kandi ata migenderanire ishemeye n’amakungu iriho. Ico gihugu rero kitagira imihora co muri Afirika y’Ubuseruko, gitumbereye mu karere k’ibiyaga binini kikaba kigizwe n’abahutu (bangana n’ibice 85%), abatutsi (bangana n’ibice 14%) n’abatwa (bangana n’igice 1%) kikaba kirangwa n’imico imwe n’ururimi rumwe. Indimi zizwi kandi zikoreshwa mu kazi ni ikirundi, igifaransa; igiswahili gikoreshwa canecane mu buzima b'urudandazwa.

Kuva Uburundi buronse ukwikukira, bwagize ingorane nyinshi zijanye n’ivy'imibano na poritike zagumye zigaruka ari zo zatumye haba indwano, haba abahungiye mu mahanga abandi bakegeranirizwa hagati mu gihugu, harasamburwa inyubakwa rusangi n’ubutunzi. Ingwano yabaye mu Burundi mu 1993, niyo yabaye ndende cane kandi ni nayo yagize inkurikizi mbi cane ku vyerekeye poritike. Kukaba nkako, uretse ihagarikwa ry’umuzo w'intwaro rusangi n’itituka ry’ivyerekana iterambere mu vyerekeye ubutunzi ico kiza nyene c’intambara cateye, caranatumye haba itituka ry’ubutegetsi n’akaranga mu bice vyinshi vy’igihugu.

Kimwe mu bituma indyane zidahera, ni igwirirana ry’abantu mu matongo yaze n’inkurikizi zaryo ku butunzi busanzwe bushimikiye canecane k'uburimyi. Abenegihugu bangana n'imiriyoni umunani ugereranije bagwirirana ku rugero rugwijije na kabiri uko imyaka mirongo itatu iheze, bakagwira kurugero rungana n’ibice bitatu kw'ijana (3%) ku mwaka. Tugereranije, dusanga hafi ica kabiri c’abarundi bafise munsi y’imyaka 15, ibice bingana mirongo icenda kw'ijana (90%) babeshwaho n’uburimyi. Abangana n’ibice mirondo indwi (70%) nabo usanga baronka agahembo kari munsi y’idorari rimwe ry’Abanyamerika ku musi.

Inyuma y’ihagarikwa ry'intwaro rusangi mu 1993, ibihugu bigize kano karere (Ubuganda, Tanzaniya, Afirika bw’epfo), bishigikiwe n’amakungu , vyarafashe ingingo yo kugarukana amahoro mu gihugu, ibiganiro vyatumye haba ishirwa ry’igikumu i Arusha ku masezerano y’amahoro n’umwumvikano mu Burundi. Amasezerano y’i Arusha ashimikiye ku mwumvikano n’ubumwe mu gihugu, agategekanya n’ingene abadasangiye ubwoko boserukirwa ata mahinyu. Ishirwa mu ngiro ry’Amasezerano ryabaye intango y’intwaro y’infatakibanza, mu ntambwe yashitseko iyihambaye ikaba yabaye ishikirizwa muri Gitugutu umwaka wa 2001, ry’ibwirizwa shingiro rigenga itunganywa ry’inzego mu kiringo c’amezi 36.

Muri Ruhuhuma umwaka wa 2005, Abarundi barahamagariwe kwemeza irindi bwirizwa shingiro biciye mu matora. Iryo bwirizwa shingiro risubirira iryamaze amezi 36, rirasigura neza ko Uburundi ari irepuburika yigenga, ifise intwaro rusangi kandi itisunga idini na rimwe , " yubahiriza ubudasa bw’amoko n’amadini ". Iryo bwirizwa shingiro rirubahiriza urugero amoko aserukirwa mu vya poritike, mu nzego, mu buzi bwa reta, rikongera rikubahiriza intwaro ihuriyemwo abanyeporitike n’abajejwe umutekano mu gushinga urugero ahahutu n’abatutsi baserukirwako, badasize inyuma kwubahiriza uguserukirwa kw’abakenyezi ku bice 30%.

UbutunziEdit

Uburundi ni igihugu gitunzwe canecane n´uburimyi hamwe n´ubworozi. Ibice mirongo icenda kw'ijana (90%) vy´abarundi nico bakora. Kuva mu 1993 aho ingwano itereye bifatanijwe n´ibihano bwafatiwe mu 1996 n´ibihugu bibanyi vyo kwugara imbibe; ubukene bwariyongereye cane. Ubu Uburundi buriko buranaganaga kuva aho hasinyiwe amasezerano hagati y'imigwi yahora irwanya ubutegetsi hamwe n'igisoda ca reta. Abahinga babona ko Uburundi bufise kazoza keza.

InderoEdit

Amashure matoya : Mu Burundi abana batangura amashure matoya bafise imyaka itandatu. Amashure matoya atunganijwe mu myaka itandatu. Umwaka wa gatandatu uherezwa n'ikibazo ca Reta giha abarushije abandi uburenganzira bwo kwiga mu mashure yisumbuye akukira Ireta. Abamenye mugabo bataronse ubwo burenganzira, baca biga amshure yisumbuye akukira amakomine. Abo kinaniye barashobora guhitira canke bagaheba kwiga, bakaja kurondera ubuzima mu myuga mitomito. Abenshi muri abo birabagora cane kwiteza imbere kuko baba bavuye mw'ishure bakiri bato kandi ata bumenyi bukwiye bafise.

Amashure y'isumbuye Mu Burundi abana batangura amashure yisumbuye bafise imyaka icumi n'ibiri canke icumi n'itatu iyo batahitiye. Mu bisanzwe amashure yisumbuye agizwe n'ibice bibiri. Mu gice ca mbere abana bamara imyaka ine ku ntebe y'ishure.Ivyirwa bikuru bikuru bakurikira ni ibi: 1. Indimi(ikirundi, igifaransa n'icongereza): 2. Ibiharuro 3. Akahise 4. Indonda bihugu 5. Uburimyi 6. Kunonora imitsi 7. Ubuhinga

Kugira babandanye igice ca kabiri, bategerezwa kumenya ikibazo co mu mwaka w'icumi. Abafise ubumenyi bujanye n'ibiharuro, barashobora guhitamwo kubandanya amashure yisumbuye mu gisata c'ibiharuro n'ibindi vyirwa bijanye. Abafise amanota meza mu ndimi n'ibindi vyirwa bijanye na bo bashobora ku bandanya amashure yisumbuye mu gisata c'indimi. Muri ico gihe, ivyirwa abana biga biba bishimikiye ku ndimi canke ku biharuro. Bitayeko, abana barashobora guhitamwo kwiga amashure y'imyuga. Abana bahisemwo kunonosora ibiharuro canke indimi, bategerezwa gukora ikibazo co mu mwaka w'icumi na gatatu. Ni ikibazo c'Ireta gihambaye cane gitanga uburenganzira bwo kwinjira muri kaminuza.[1]


NotesEdit

  1. "Amashure kaminuza".

LiensEdit